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Ophthalmology Optical Coherence Tomography Databases for Artificial Intelligence Algorithm: A Review
Imaging plays a pivotal role in eye assessment. With the introduction of advanced machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI), the focus has shifted to imaging datasets in ophthalmology. While disparities and health inequalities hidden within data are well-documented, the ophthalmology field faces specific challenges to the creation and maintenance of datasets. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of retinal pathologies, making it valuable for AI applications. This review aims to identify and compare the landscape of publicly available optical coherence tomography databases for AI applications.
Navigating beyond numbers: the clinical context and the role of high-sensitivity troponin on long-term outcomes of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome
Psychological factors are associated with pain extent in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome
Widespread pain may be related to psychosocial aspects in several musculoskeletal conditions, but the literature on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is scarce.
IPR-Mediated Calcium Release Promotes Ferroptotic Death in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells
Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent cell death pathway that involves the depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and iron-mediated lipid peroxidation. Ferroptosis is experimentally caused by the inhibition of the cystine/glutamate antiporter xCT, which depletes cells of GSH, or by inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), a key regulator of lipid peroxidation. The events that occur between GPx4 inhibition and the execution of ferroptotic cell death are currently a matter of active research. Previous work has shown that calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels contributes to ferroptosis-induced cell death in primary hippocampal neurons. Here, we used SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which do not express RyR channels, to test if calcium release mediated by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IPR) channel plays a role in this process. We show that treatment with RAS Selective Lethal Compound 3 (RSL3), a GPx4 inhibitor, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased cytoplasmic and mitochondrial calcium levels, increased lipid peroxidation, and caused cell death. The RSL3-induced calcium signals were inhibited by Xestospongin B, a specific inhibitor of the ER-resident IPR calcium channel, by decreasing IPR levels with carbachol and by IPR1 knockdown, which also prevented the changes in cell morphology toward roundness induced by RSL3. Intracellular calcium chelation by incubation with BAPTA-AM inhibited RSL3-induced calcium signals, which were not affected by extracellular calcium depletion. We propose that GPx4 inhibition activates IPR-mediated calcium release in SH-SY5Y cells, leading to increased cytoplasmic and mitochondrial calcium levels, which, in turn, stimulate ROS production and induce lipid peroxidation and cell death in a noxious positive feedback cycle.
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Author Correction: The BrainLat project, a multimodal neuroimaging dataset of neurodegeneration from underrepresented backgrounds
Effects of pectin's degree of methyl esterification on TLR2-mediated IL-8 secretion and tight junction gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells: influence of soluble TLR2
This study investigates the anti-inflammatory effects of pectins with different degrees of methyl esterification (DM) on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) expressing low and high levels of TLR2. It also studies the influence of soluble TLR2 (sTLR2) which may be enhanced in patients with inflammatory bowel syndrome on the inflammation-attenuating effects of pectins. Also, it examines the impact of pectins on tight junction gene expression in IECs. Lemon pectins with DM18 and DM88 were characterized, and their effects on TLR2-1-induced gene expression and secretion were investigated in low-TLR2 expressing Caco-2 and high-TLR2 expressing DLD-1 cells. The results demonstrate that both DM18 and DM88 pectins can counteract TLR2-1-induced IL-8 expression and secretion, with more pronounced effects observed in DLD-1 cells expressing high levels of TLR2. Furthermore, the presence of sTLR2 does not interfere with the attenuating effects of low DM18 pectin and may even support its anti-inflammatory effects in Caco-2 cells. The impact of pectins and sTLR2 on tight junction gene expression also demonstrates cell-type-dependent effects. Overall, these findings suggest that low DM pectins possess potent anti-inflammatory properties and may influence tight junction gene expression in IECs, thereby contributing to the maintenance of gut homeostasis.
Neurocognitive correlates of semantic memory navigation in Parkinson's disease
Cognitive studies on Parkinson's disease (PD) reveal abnormal semantic processing. Most research, however, fails to indicate which conceptual properties are most affected and capture patients' neurocognitive profiles. Here, we asked persons with PD, healthy controls, and individuals with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, as a disease control group) to read concepts (e.g., 'sun') and list their features (e.g., hot). Responses were analyzed in terms of ten word properties (including concreteness, imageability, and semantic variability), used for group-level comparisons, subject-level classification, and brain-behavior correlations. PD (but not bvFTD) patients produced more concrete and imageable words than controls, both patterns being associated with overall cognitive status. PD and bvFTD patients showed reduced semantic variability, an anomaly which predicted semantic inhibition outcomes. Word-property patterns robustly classified PD (but not bvFTD) patients and correlated with disease-specific hypoconnectivity along the sensorimotor and salience networks. Fine-grained semantic assessments, then, can reveal distinct neurocognitive signatures of PD.
The Phenotypic Spectrum of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 19 in a Series of Latin American Patients
Spinocerebellar ataxia 19 (SCA19) represents a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder resulting in progressive ataxia and cerebellar atrophy. SCA19 is caused by variants in the KCND3 gene, which encodes a voltage-gated potassium channel subunit essential for cerebellar Purkinje cell function. We describe six cases from Chile and Mexico, representing the largest report on SCA19 in Latin America. These cases encompass a range of clinical presentations, highlighting the phenotypic variability within SCA19 from an early-onset, severe disease to a late-onset, slowly progressive condition with normal lifespan. While some patients present with pure ataxia, others also show cognitive impairment, dystonia, and other neurological symptoms. The correlations between specific KCND3 variants and phenotypic outcomes are complex and warrant further investigation. As the genomic landscape of spinocerebellar ataxias evolves, comprehensive genetic testing is becoming pivotal in improving diagnostic accuracy. This study contributes to a better understanding of the clinical spectrum of SCA19, laying the groundwork for further genotype-phenotype correlations and functional studies to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology.
Transcription levels of hes and their involvement in the biofilm formation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O91
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are recognized as being responsible for many cases of foodborne diseases worldwide. Cattle are the main reservoir of STEC, shedding the microorganisms in their feces. The serogroup STEC O91 has been associated with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Locus of Adhesion and Autoaggregation (LAA) and its hes gene are related to the pathogenicity of STEC and the ability to form biofilms. Considering the frequent isolation of STEC O91, the biofilm-forming ability, and the possible role of hes in the pathogenicity of STEC, we propose to evaluate the ability of STEC to form biofilms and to evaluate the expression of hes before and after of biofilm formation. All strains were classified as strong biofilm-forming. The hes expression showed variability between strains before and after biofilm formation, and this may be due to other genes carried by each strain. This study is the first to report the relationship between biofilm formation, and hes expression and proposes that the analysis and diagnosis of LAA, especially hes as STEC O91 virulence factors, could elucidate these unknown mechanisms. Considering that there is no specific treatment for HUS, only supportive care, it is necessary to know the survival and virulence mechanisms of STEC O91.
Novel Strategies to Improve the Cardioprotective Effects of Cardioplegia
The use of cardioprotective strategies as adjuvants of cardioplegic solutions has become an ideal alternative for the improvement of post-surgery heart recovery. The choice of the optimal cardioplegia, as well as its distribution mechanism, remains controversial in the field of cardiovascular surgery. There is still a need to search for new and better cardioprotective methods during cardioplegic procedures. New techniques for the management of cardiovascular complications during cardioplegia have evolved with new alternatives and additives, and each new strategy provides a tool to neutralize the damage after ischemia/reperfusion events. Researchers and clinicians have committed themselves to studying the effect of new strategies and adjuvant components with the potential to improve the cardioprotective effect of cardioplegic solutions in preventing myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury during cardiac surgery. The aim of this review is to explore the different types of cardioplegia, their protection mechanisms, and which strategies have been proposed to enhance the function of these solutions in hearts exposed to cardiovascular pathologies that require surgical alternatives for their corrective progression.
Author Correction: Neurocognitive correlates of semantic memory navigation in Parkinson's disease
Transcriptomic Analysis of the Aged Nulliparous Mouse Ovary Suggests a Stress State That Promotes Pro-Inflammatory Lipid Signaling and Epithelial Cell Enrichment
Ovarian cancer (OC) incidence and mortality peaks at post-menopause while OC risk is either reduced by parity or increased by nulliparity during fertile life. The long-term effect of nulliparity on ovarian gene expression is largely unknown. In this study, we describe a bioinformatic/data-mining analysis of 112 coding genes upregulated in the aged nulliparous (NP) mouse ovary compared to the aged multiparous one as reference. Canonical gene ontology and pathway analyses indicated a pro-oxidant, xenobiotic-like state accompanied by increased metabolism of inflammatory lipid mediators. Up-regulation of typical epithelial cell markers in the aged NP ovary was consistent with synchronized overexpression of , , , and during the pre-neoplastic phase of mOSE cell cultures in a former transcriptome study. In addition, 61/112 genes were upregulated in knockout mice for and for three other tumor suppressor genes (, and ) known to regulate follicular homeostasis in the mammalian ovary. We conclude that the aged NP ovary displays a multifaceted stress state resulting from oxidative imbalance and pro-inflammatory lipid signaling. The enriched epithelial cell content might be linked to follicle depletion and is consistent with abundant clefts and cysts observed in aged human and mouse ovaries. It also suggests a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in the mOSE of the aged NP ovary. Our analysis suggests that in the long term, nulliparity worsens a variety of deleterious effects of aging and senescence thereby increasing susceptibility to cancer initiation in the ovary.
Gene Signature Associated with Nervous System in an Experimental Radiation- and Estrogen-Induced Breast Cancer Model
Breast cancer is frequently the most diagnosed female cancer in the world. The experimental studies on cancer seldom focus on the relationship between the central nervous system and cancer. Despite extensive research into the treatment of breast cancer, chemotherapy resistance is an important issue limiting the efficacy of treatment. Novel biomarkers to predict prognosis or sensitivity to chemotherapy are urgently needed. This study examined nervous-system-related genes. The profiling of differentially expressed genes indicated that high-LET radiation, such as that emitted by radon progeny, in the presence of estrogen, induced a cascade of events indicative of tumorigenicity in human breast epithelial cells. Bioinformatic tools allowed us to analyze the genes involved in breast cancer and associated with the nervous system. The results indicated that the gene expression of the gene (, the (, and was greater in T2 and A5 than in the A3 cell line; the ( was greater in T2 than A3 and A5; ( gene ( ( were greater than A3 only in T2; and gene ( was greater in A5 than in the A3 and E cell lines. Concerning the correlation, it was found a positive correlation between and in BRCA-LumA patients; with in BRCA-Basal patients, but this correlation was negative with the ( in BRCA-LumA and -LumB, as well as with and in all BRCA. It was also positive with ( in BRCA-Her2 and BRCA-LumB, and with in BRCA-LumA and -LumB, but negative with in all BRCA and BRCA-LumA and in BRCA-Her2. The differential gene expression levels between the tumor and adjacent tissue indicated that the , , , , , and gene expression levels were higher in normal tissues than in tumors; however, was higher in the tumor than the normal ones. , , , , , and gene expression had a negative ER status, whereas and were not significant concerning ER status. In conclusion, important markers have been analyzed concerning genes related to the nervous system, opening up a new avenue of studies in breast cancer therapy.
Impact of MICA 3'UTR allelic variability on miRNA binding prediction, a bioinformatic approach
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that participate as powerful genetic regulators. MiRNAs can interfere with cellular processes by interacting with a broad spectrum of target genes under physiological and pathological states, including cancer development and progression. Major histocompatibility complex major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) belongs to a family of proteins that bind the natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor on Natural Killer cells and other cytotoxic lymphocytes. MICA plays a crucial role in the host's innate immune response to several disease settings, including cancer. harbors various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in its 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR), a characteristic that increases the complexity of MICA regulation, favoring its post-transcriptional modulation by miRNAs under physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we conducted an in-depth analysis of 3'UTR sequences according to each allele described to date using NCBI database. We also systematically evaluated interactions between miRNAs and their putative targets on 3'UTR containing SNPs using analysis. Our results showed that SNPs rs9266829, rs 1880, and rs9266825, located in the target sequence of miRNAs hsa-miR-106a-5p, hsa-miR-17-5p, hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-20b-5p, hsa-miR-93, hsa-miR-1207.5p, and hsa-miR-711 could modify the binding free energy between -8.62 and -18.14 kcal/mol, which may affect the regulation of MICA expression. We believe that our results may provide a starting point for further exploration of miRNA regulatory effects depending on MICA allelic variability; they may also be a guide to conduct miRNA analysis for other highly polymorphic genes.
Editorial: The role of early-life nutrition and metabolism in brain development and adult behavior
Differential Detection of Amyloid Aggregates in Old Animals Using Gold Nanorods by Computerized Tomography: A Pharmacokinetic and Bioaccumulation Study
The development of new materials and tools for radiology is key to the implementation of this diagnostic technique in clinics. In this work, we evaluated the differential accumulation of peptide-functionalized GNRs in a transgenic animal model (APPswe/PSENd1E9) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by computed tomography (CT) and measured the pharmacokinetic parameters and bioaccumulation of the nanosystem.
Cochlear dysfunction as an early biomarker of cognitive decline in normal hearing and mild hearing loss
Age-related hearing loss is an important risk factor for cognitive decline. However, audiogram thresholds are not good estimators of dementia risk in subjects with normal hearing or mild hearing loss. Here we propose to use distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as an objective and sensitive tool to estimate the risk of cognitive decline in older adults with normal hearing or mild hearing loss.
Two centuries of vaccination: historical and conceptual approach and future perspectives
Over the past two centuries, vaccines have been critical for the prevention of infectious diseases and are considered milestones in the medical and public health history. The World Health Organization estimates that vaccination currently prevents approximately 3.5-5 million deaths annually, attributed to diseases such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, influenza, and measles. Vaccination has been instrumental in eradicating important pathogens, including the smallpox virus and wild poliovirus types 2 and 3. This narrative review offers a detailed journey through the history and advancements in vaccinology, tailored for healthcare workers. It traces pivotal milestones, beginning with the variolation practices in the early 17th century, the development of the first smallpox vaccine, and the continuous evolution and innovation in vaccine development up to the present day. We also briefly review immunological principles underlying vaccination, as well as the main vaccine types, with a special mention of the recently introduced mRNA vaccine technology. Additionally, we discuss the broad benefits of vaccines, including their role in reducing morbidity and mortality, and in fostering socioeconomic development in communities. Finally, we address the issue of vaccine hesitancy and discuss effective strategies to promote vaccine acceptance. Research, collaboration, and the widespread acceptance and use of vaccines are imperative for the continued success of vaccination programs in controlling and ultimately eradicating infectious diseases.
Inhibition of NOX2 or NLRP3 inflammasome prevents cardiac remote ischemic preconditioning
Short episodes of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in the heart (classical ischemic preconditioning, IPC) or in a limb (remote ischemic preconditioning, RIPC) before a prolonged ischemic episode, reduce the size of the infarct. It is unknown whether IPC and RIPC share common mechanisms of protection. Animals KO for NOX2, a superoxide-producing enzyme, or KO for NLRP3, a protein component of inflammasome, are not protected by IPC. The aim of this study was to investigate if NOX2 or NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the protection induced by RIPC. We preconditioned rats using 4 × 5 min periods of IR in the limb with or without a NOX2 inhibitor (apocynin) or an NLRP3 inhibitor (Bay117082). In isolated hearts, we measured the infarct size after 30 min of ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion. In hearts from preconditioned rats we measured the activity of NOX2; the mRNA of Nrf2, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase, glutathione dehydrogenase, thioredoxin reductase and sulfiredoxin by RT-qPCR; the content of glutathione; the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the content of IL-1β and IL-10 in cardiac tissue. In exosomes isolated from plasma, we quantified NOX2 activity. The infarct size after IR decreased from 40% in controls to 9% of the heart volume after RIPC. This protective effect was lost in the presence of both inhibitors. RIPC increased NOX2 activity in the heart and exosomes, as indicated by the increased association of p47phox to the membrane and by the increased oxidation rate of NADPH. RIPC also increased the mRNA of Nrf2 and antioxidant enzymes. Also, RIPC increased the content of glutathione and the GSH/GSSG ratio. The inflammasome proteins NLRP3, procaspase-1, and caspase-1 were all increased in the hearts of RIPC rats. At the end of RIPC protocol, IL-1β increased in plasma but decreased in cardiac tissue. At the same time, IL-10 did not change in cardiac tissue but increased by 70% during the next 50 min of perfusion. RIPC activates NOX2 which upregulates the heart's antioxidant defenses and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome which stimulates a cardiac anti-inflammatory response. These changes may underlie the decrease in the infarct size induced by RIPC.